Although quite hardy, Bearded Dragons are susceptible to a variety of ailments, including parasites, impactions, and respiratory diseases.
The greatest health threat to the Bearded Dragon, however, is metabolic bone disease, which results from a calcium deficiency. Metabolic bone disease causes a weakening of the bone leading to deformities which are quite painful in Bearded Dragons, as well as other reptiles. To prevent metobolic bone disease, Bearded dragons must receive adequate amounts of calcium in their diets, as well as both UVA and UVB light.
Parasitic infestations in Bearded Dragons come from insects, greens, and unclean cages. If your beardie appears listless, is losing weight, or has smelly, running droppings for a period of time, chances are he has parasites and should be taken to a reptile vet for treatment. If left untreated, parasites can be detrimental to your dragon’s health and may even lead to death.
Proper temperature and humidity levels in your beardie's environment are important to maintain in order to prevent respiratory problems. Signs that your beardie may be suffering from respiratory problems may be clogged nostrils, mucus, raspy breathing or breathing through the mouth. Treatment involves antibiotics supplied by your reptile vet and adjusting the environment of your beardie's cage.
Egg binding is a common ailment in breeding females. This happens during the first breeding cycle, with infertile eggs. To prevent egg binding, make sure the female dragon is old enough, large enough, and healthy enough for breeding. Egg binding can only be corrected by a vet.
Adenovirus is a relatively new problem that attacks mostly young or weak Bearded Dragons. This often fatal virus is hard to detect and often look like calcium deficiency. Currently the only way to accurately diagnose adenovirus is by autopsy. Infected animals need to be force fed, and given lots of fluids and antibiotics to combat secondary bacterial infections. Care should be taken when acquiring a new Bearded Dragon to make certain it is not infected with this deadly disease.